Process: A preformed sheet of material is warmed and draped over a former. Neither high heat nor pressure is required so moulds can be made from cheap materials such as MDF. This process can also be used to form rods and tubes.
Introduced: 1890 for use with cellulose nitrate
Tooling cost: Low.
Production volume: Low quantities or even one offs.
Uses: Open structures such as bowls and dishes, rods and tubes.