Process:   A preformed sheet of material is warmed and draped over a former.  Neither high heat nor pressure is required so moulds can be made from cheap materials such as MDF.  This process can also be used to form rods and tubes.

Introduced:   1890 for use with cellulose nitrate

Plastics:   Most sheet thermoplastic materials for example cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, and polycarbonate.

Marks:   None.

Tooling cost:   Low.

Production volume:   Low quantities or even one offs.

Uses:   Open structures such as bowls and dishes, rods and tubes.